Percent Crystallinity Calculator form Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)

Melting Enthalpy (ΔHm)

Crystallization Enthalpy (ΔHc)

Melting Enthalpy for 100% Crystallinity(ΔH*m)


Results

%



Calculation Tutorial:

STEP1: Enter the 'Enthalpy of Melting (ΔHm) for the polymer, which is the Area of the melting curve divided by sample weight obtained from DSC and its unit is J/g.

STEP2: Enter the 'Enthalpy of Crystallization (ΔHc) for the polymer, which is the Area of the Crystallization curve divided by sample weight obtained from DSC and its unit is J/g.

STEP3: Enter the 'Melting Enthalpy for 100% Crystallinity(ΔH*m) for the polymer, which is the value of Melting Enthalpy when the polymer is 100% crystalline. This value you can easily get from references.
Few Polymers ΔH*m value from the literature

Polymer Name Melting Enthalpy for 100% Crystallinity(ΔH*m)
Nylon 6 230.1
Nylon 6,6 255.8
PET 140.1
Polypropylene 207.1
Polyethylene 293.6
Raman Spectroscopy Crystallite Size Calculator (Tuinstra Koenig Relation)


Laser Wavelength

ID/IG Ratio


Results

nm


Calculation Tutorial:

STEP1: Open the Raman spectra of the material, which is obtained from the instrument and calculator ID by IG ratio.

STEP2: Now enter the Wavelength of Laser used during the Raman Characterization; also measured ID/IG Ratio (for example 0.9733) in "ID/IG Ratio (D/G Peak)" column of the calculator. You should get the calculated results of the d value in the "Results" field.

Theory Behind Calculations:

The above calculator is based on the "Tuinstra Koenig Relation" to calculate the crystallite size by using Raman Spectroscopy.

Tuinstra Koenig Relation:

Crystallite Size (La) = 2.4×10^-10 × Wavelength of Laser (nm) / ID:IG Ratio

Weight to Molarity Calculator


From this calculator, you can easily calculate molarity from weight by entering the weight, molecular weight and volume of any solution.



Weight (grams)

Molecular Weight

Volume (ml)


Results

M


Concentration of Solution (mmol/L) to Molar Absorptivity from UV Vis Absorbance Calculator
From this calculator, you can easily calculate the molar absorptivity from the absorption spectra of Uv-Vis spectroscopy.



Absorbance

Concentration(mM)

Cell Length (cm)


Results

mmol/L


Molarity to Weight Calculator
From this calculator, you can easily calculate weight from molarity by entering the molarity, molecular weight and volume of any solution.




Molarity (M)

Molecular Weight

Volume (ml)

Results

grams

milligrams


Easy Synthesis of High Quality Graphene Oxide (Novel Method)

CHECK LIST: Citric Acid, Sodium Hydroxide, Deionized Water, Magnetic Stirrer, Round Bottom Flask, Beaker and Dropper.

STEP1: Take Citric Acid (5g) in RB Flask. Raw HTML STEP2: Setup the oil bath and set temperature to 200ºC. Raw HTML 500 rpm 200°C STEP3: Put RB Flask in oil bath, when the temperature reaches 200ºC. Raw HTML 500 rpm 200°C STEP4: Color of Citric acid will change with the time. Raw HTML 500 rpm 200°C 500 rpm 200°C 500 rpm 200°C 500 rpm 200°C 500 rpm 200°C Initially After 5 min After 30 min After 50 min After 90 min STEP5: Add the dark brown colored liquid in 3.5% Sodium Hydroxide Solution (3.5g NaOH in 100ml of deionized water). Raw HTML 500 rpm 60°C after some time 500 rpm 60°C RESULTS: Dark brown color indicates the formation of Graphene Oxide. You can go for Raman Spectroscopy for the characterization and explore InstaNANO for raman and other characterization of Graphene Oxide.

Silver nanoparticles synthesis, characterization and applications
WHAT ARE SILVER NANOPARTICLES? Silver Nanoparticles are 3-Dimensional material, of which at least one dimension is Quantum confined. In simple words, Silver Nanoparticles are having at least one dimension in size range of 1 to 100 nanometer (Sometimes, Particles having size greater than 100 nanometer can be called as Nanoparticles depending on the Quantum Confinement effect).

Silver Nanomaterials can be classified into four categories mainly:
1-Dimensional Silver Nanomaterials - Silver Nanowires, Nanofibers and Nanorods etc.;
2-Dimensional Silver Nanomaterials Silver Films and Coatings etc.;
3-Dimensional Silver Nanomaterials - Silver Nanocubes, Nanoflowers, Nanoring, Nanotriangles and Nanoporous Structures etc.;
0-Dimensional Silver Nanomaterials - Silver Quantum Dots.

HOW SILVER NANOPARTICLES DIFFER FROM ORDINARY SILVER? Ordinary Silver is light Gray in color, but color of Silver Nanoparticles changes from Yellow to Reddish depending on the size of Nanoparticles as seen in above image. Ordinary Silver is only used for few applications like Jewelry and foil papers. But Silver Nanoparticles are having wide range of applications in Electronics, Paints, Coatings, Soap, Detergents, Bandage and many other medical applications. Our researchers didn't stop yet, we are finding more and more applications of Silver Nanoparticles every year.

SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES: Silver Nanoparticles can be synthesized through various techniques. For better understanding, synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles can be categorized into mainly two categories: 
1. Top Down Techniques - Ball Milling, Grinding, Laser Ablation and Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) etc. 
2. Bottom Up Techniques - Simple Chemical Reduction, Hydro-thermal, Micro-organism & Leaf extract Synthesis and many more. 
Simple Reduction Technique: 1. Take the available Silver precursor (e.g. Silver Nitrate, Silver Acetate or Silver Sulfate) in water. 2. Then add Capping/Stabilizing agent (e.g. PolyVinyl Alcohol (PVA), PolyVinylPyrrolidone (PVP) or CTAB etc.) 3. Now add reducing agent (e.g. Hydrazine Hydrate, Sodium Borohydride etc.) for the formation of Silver Nanoparticles. 
NOTE: Precursor : Capping : Reducing = 1 : 2 : 0.7  &  Precursor : Water = 0.001 : 1  (This ratio is not fixed, you have to optimize it to get good results) Please explore InstaNANO.com for more synthesis techniques.

CHARACTERIZATION OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES: UV-Vis Absorption of Silver: Absorption peak of Silver Nanoparticles is obtained around 420nm.

X-Ray Diffraction of Silver: XRD of Silver mineral is given [codetabs id="2"]

PROPERTIES & APPLICATIONS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES: Silver Nanoparticles are having various properties but mainly known for these unique properties: 
Anti-Microbial Properties: It is known form the past centuries that Silver is having very good anti-microbial properties. In Silver Nanoparticles, anti-microbial properties are very high. At present, Silver Nanoparticles are being used in many medical applications because of its highly active anti-microbial properties. Research is going on the Silver Nanoparticles coated Bandage as it can kill bad microbes and lead for better healing at some injured body part. A research is also going on using Silver Nanoparticles in the food packaging so that food can survive for longer time without any contamination. 
Anti-Fungal Properties: Silver highly participate in anti-fungal properties. Various researches are going on these days to use Silver Nanoparticles protection in food items, paint industries, textile industries etc. In future, we will be surely having some items which will be highly hygienic, pure and impurity-free; which will only be possible by Silver Nanoparticles.
ppm Calculator

Mass of solute (mg)

Mass of solvent (mg)

Results:

Concentration (ppm)


Percent (%)


THEORY BEHIND CALCULATIONS:

FOR METHOD1: Calculations are based on the following relation:

C(ppm) = 1000000 × msolute / (msolvent + msolute)

Where msolute = Mass of solute, msolvent = Mass of solvent

FOR METHOD2/3: Calculations are based on the following relation:

x(ppm) = 10000 ⋅ x(%)

Where x(ppm) = Chemical concentration in ppm, x(%) = Percent of chemical.

Reducing Agent Calculator for Nanoparticles Synthesis

Reducing Agent M.W.

Precursor M.W.

Precursor Weight (g)

Reduction (in %)


Results

g


Final particles size of synthesized Nanoparticles not only depend on the Reducing Agent, but also depends on the factors like Capping Agent, Stabilizing Agent, Amount of Solvent used, Temperature and pH etc.

Calculation Tutorial:

STEP1: Enter the Molecular Weight (M.W.) of Reducing Agent, for example Hydrazine Hydrate is having molecular weight of 32 g/mol.

STEP2: Enter the Molecular Weight (M.W.) of Precursor, for example Nickel Nitrate is having molecular weight of 182.7 g/mol.

STEP3: Enter the weight of the precursor you have taken in grams, for example 1g.

STEP4: Enter the Percentage (%) of Reduction you want, for example you want to reduce 50, 100, 200 percent of Nickel Nitrate.

NOTE: We recommend you to use Hydrazine Hydrate as Reducing Agent for Nanoparticles synthesis. Use 10% diluted Hydrazine Hydrate for better results.

Raman Spectroscopy Characterization of Graphene & Graphene Oxide
Raman Spectroscopy is the best technique for the qualitative analysis of the Graphene.
Single, Double, Few & Multi Layer Graphene can be determined by the: Peak Position, Peak Intensity and Peak Broadening of the Raman Spectra. Ideal Raman Spectra for Graphene is given below:


NUMBER OF LAYERS CALCULATOR: There are mainly these THREE methods, which can be used to calculate the number of layers in Graphene by Raman Spectroscopy: Method1: G Band Position in Raman Spectra; Method 2: Intensity Ratio of 2D:G Peak in Raman Spectra; Method 3: Intensity Ratio of D:G Peak in Raman Spectra

G Band Intensity

D Band Intensity

2D Band Intensity

Results

ID/IG Ratio

I2D/IG Ratio


THEORY BEHIND CALCULATIONS:
FOR METHOD1: Calculations are based on the following relation (532nm LASER): wG = 1581.6 + 11/(1 + n^1.6) Where wG = G Band Position in Raman Spectra; n = Number of layers Raman of Graphene

FOR METHOD2: (Most Reliable) Calculations are based on the Literature Surveys done regarding the Intensity ratio of 2D:G peak in Raman Spectra.

FOR METHOD3: Calculations are based on the Literature Surveys done regarding the Intensity ratio of D:G peak in Raman Spectra. Toggle panel: Yoast SEO Toggle panel: Custom appearance in Grid Thank you for creating with WordPress. Version 5.1.1